Illustrations from the manuscript of the Romance of Varqa and Gulshah, c1250.


Warqa wa Gulshah, Varqa u Gulshah, Varka ve Gülţah'ta, Varqa o Golšăh, Le Roman de "Varqe et Golsah", Varqeh va-Golashah.
Scenes from the only known illustrated manuscript of the poem, the Romance of Varqa and Gulshah, by Urwa b Huzam al-'Udhri, with paintings by Abd al Mu'min al Khuwayyi.

The early thirteenth-century manuscript of Varqa and Gulshah in the Topkapi Palace Library (Haz. 841) is the unique copy of the Persian poet Ayyuqi's 11th-century romantic poem about a pair of unfortunate lovers. The manuscript - generally held to be a product of early 13th-century Seljuk Anatolia - is also the earliest surviving example of an illustrated book containing a literary Persian text. Based on a story "told by Arabs," the poem was (re-)composed by Ayyuqi in the eastern Iranian world during the Ghaznavid period. The seventy-one paintings constitute a fascinating corpus of images which indicate a particularly rich realm of artistic process and audience expectation.

A summary of the story of Varqa and Gulshah

Click on the pictures for a larger image.

f.11/13a. Rabi‘ ibn Adnan in combat with Banu Shayba.



f.12/13a. Rabi‘ ibn Adnan in combat with Banu Shayba.



f.13/15a. Scene of the struggle of Warqah's father with Rabi‘.

The young Rabi appears as an armoured horse archer (left) while Varqa's aged father (right) is a white-bearded lancer riding a fully caparisoned horse.


f.14/15b.Rabi‘ kills the father of Warqah.



f.15/16b. Warqah takes in his arms his father Humam, killed.



f.16/17b. The struggle between Warqah and Rabi‘



f.17/18a. Warqa in combat with Rabi.



f.18/18b. Another scene of the same struggle, Warqah's horse is injured.



f.19/19b. Gulshah fleeing the palace of Rabi‘.



f.20/20a. The contemplation of Gulshah, the fight between Warqah and Rabi‘.




The artist's name 'Abd al-Mu'min b. Muhammad al-Naqqash al-Khuyi occurs as a witness to the endowment deed of the madrasa founded by the Seljuk amir Jalăl al-Din Karatay in 1253-54AD at Konya. The artist's signature is fol.58v of the Warqa wa Gulshăh manuscript. The nisbah al-Kliuyi shows that he was from Khuy, Azerbaijan. (Grube 1966 p .73; Melikian-Chirvani 1970 pp.79-80; Rogers 1986 p.50).
From the Topkapi Saray Museum, Istanbul, Turkey.

Varqa wa Gulshah, page 1
Varqa wa Gulshah, page 3
Varqa wa Gulshah, page 4
Varqa wa Gulshah, page 5
Varqa wa Gulshah, page 6
Varqa wa Gulshah, page 7

Large Coloured Military Illustrations from the Romance of Varqa and Gulshah
Other Large Coloured Illustrations from the Romance of Varqa and Gulshah
Small Coloured Illustrations of Varka ve Gulsah from the Turkish Cultural Foundation

Seljuk Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers